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案例展示

煤直接液化殘渣DCLRDirectCoal Liquefaction Residue)是在煤直接液化工藝中不可避免地產生的占原料煤總量30%的主要副產物,其是一種高灰、高硫、高炭和高發熱量的物質,由重質油、瀝青烯、前瀝青烯和四氫呋喃不溶物 4個組分組成,其中重質油和瀝青烯類物質占30~50%[1-4]。合理有效利用DCLR不僅可以解決環境污染問題,而且對煤直接液化過程中的熱效率及經濟性產生很大的影響,因此,如何提高DCLR的二次附加值是目前煤直接液化工藝中面臨的主要問題之一。

70年代開始,人們對DCLR的熱解特性、如何二次有效利用DCLR等方面的問題展開了研究,Lytle J.M發現了煤直接液化過程中會產生較多的DCLR,并對DCLR的特性進行了研究[5]S.KhareSuganom等研究了DCLR的性質,發現了DCLR的基本結構及其熱解特性[6-7];田中尚羲等發現DCLR中還保留原煤的分子結構[8]

綜上所述,在DCLR再利用方面,人們普遍認為DCLR可以二次開發成瀝青的改性劑、中間相瀝青等,但作為瀝青改性劑DCLR對瀝青的改性作用仍停留在針對瀝青性能的研究階段,很少涉及到DCLR對瀝青膠漿、瀝青混合料性能影響等方面的研究。眾所周知,按照膠漿理論瀝青混合料是一種具有多級空間網絡結構的分散系統其中瀝青膠漿最為重要,起著黏結集料并填充空隙的作用,它的組成結構以及瀝青與礦粉的相對比例(粉膠比)決定著瀝青混合料的高溫穩定性和低溫變形能力[9]。粉膠比過小時,自由瀝青過多,易產生滑移,與粗、細集料的黏附性差;粉膠比過大時,自由瀝青完全被填料吸收,沒有足夠的瀝青起介質作用,整個瀝青膠漿稠度過大,易發脆、發硬,與粗、細集料的黏附性變差;只有當粉膠比處于一個較理想的水平時,瀝青膠漿與粗、細集料的黏附性才會達到最佳[10]

Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DCLR), accounting for 30% by mass of total coals, is a main byproduct inevitably produced in direct coal to oil liquefaction(DCOL). DCLR possesses high amounts of ashes, sulfurs, carbons and calorific value and composed of heavy oil, asphaltene   preasphaltenes, and tetrahydrofuran insoluble. The heavy oil and asphaltene is about 30%~50% by mass of DCLR [14]. Efficient utilization of DCLR could reduce environmental pollution and make a huge influence on thermal and economical efficiency of DCOL processes. Therefore, how to reuse DCLR is a big problem to DCOL processes.  

Since the 1970s, how to reuse DCLR has started to be investigated. Lytle et al. found that during DCOL process a high amount of DCLR was produced and further studied the characteristics of DCLR [5]. Khare and Suganom et al. presented basic structure and pyrolysis property of DCLR [67]. Tanaka et al. proved the molecular structure of DCLR is same as that of raw coal [8].

In summary, it is generally considered that DCLR could be reused as a asphalt modifier, intermediate asphalts, etc. However, most researches were focused on the effect of adding DLCR on asphalts, however the properties of asphalt mortar and asphalt mixtures were not studied. Based on the mortar theory, it is well known that asphalt mixture is a dispersion system with multilevel space network structure. Especially, asphalt mortar plays a most important role in performance of asphalt mixture. The composition and filler/asphalt ratio of asphalt mortar determine the high and low temperature performance  of asphalt mixture [9]. When the filler/asphalt ratio is too small, the free asphalts are  too much and the binding strength between asphalts with coarse or fine aggregates are weak. While the filler/asphalt ratio is too big, free asphalts are totally absorbed by mineral fillers. Asphalt mortar becomes brittle and stiff without enough asphalt as a medium. The binding strength between asphalts with coarse or fine aggregates are also weak. Only with an appropriate filler/asphalt ratio, the optimal binding strength of asphalt mortar can be obtained [10].

Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DCLR) is a main byproduct inevitablyproduced in direct coal to oil liquefaction(DCOL), accounting for 30% of the totalcoal by weight. Composed of heavy oil, asphaltene preasphaltenes, andtetrahydrofuran insoluble, DCLR possesses high amounts of ashes, sulfurs,carbons, and calorific value, of which the heavy oil and asphaltene takes about30%~50% by weight[14]. Efficient utilization of DCLRcould reduce environmental pollution and make a huge influence on thethermal and economical efficiency of DCOLprocesses. Therefore, how to reuse DCLR is an importantissue to DCOL processes.

Since the 1970s, how to reuse DCLR has started tobe investigated. Lytle et al.found that during DCOL process a high amount of DCLRwas produced and they further studied the characteristics of DCLR[5].Khare andSuganom et al.presented the basic structure and pyrolysis propertyof DCLR[67]. Tanaka et al.proved the molecularstructure of raw coal in DCLR [8].

In summary, it is generallyconsidered that DCLR could be reused as an asphalt modifier, intermediateasphalts, etc. Most researches werefocused on the effect of adding DLCR on asphalts, not on the properties ofasphalt mortar and asphalt mixtures. Based on the mortar theory, itis well known that asphalt mixture is a dispersion system with a multilevelspace network structure, in which asphalt mortarplays a most important role in the performance of asphalt mixture. Thecomposition and filler/asphalt ratio of asphalt mortar determine the high/low temperature performanceof asphalt mixture[9]. When thefiller/asphalt ratiois too small, the free asphalts are toomuch and the binding between asphalts with coarse or fine aggregatesis weak. While the filler/asphalt ratio istoo big, the free asphalts are totally absorbed by mineral fillersand asphalt mortar becomesbrittle and stiff due to lack of asphalt as a medium and consequently thebinding becomes weak. Only with an appropriate filler/asphalt ratio, theoptimal binding strength of asphalt mortar can be obtained [10].

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